IntroducationInnate behaviors are critical for individual and species survival, including sleeping, eating, defense against predator, and reproduction, etc. Under certain conditions, organisms need to optimize behavioral choices to cope with the external environment threats and internal need. Therefore, structure and function of their brain become more complex as the organism and environment co-evolve over the course of evolution. Drastic increase in stress and rapid changes in our life styles might thereby break the balance that the brain followed the rules of long course of evolution, resulting in the appearance of many diseases, such as anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. Dr. Tseng seeks to identify a set of elemental neural circuits that underlie the interplay between sleep and different innate behaviors, hopefully, contributing to the development of interventions for sleep disturbances and the related diseases.