IntroducationNeural circuits play important roles in maintaining the homeostasis of peripheral metabolism and regulating the differentiation of the stem cells . However, the mechanism of neural regulation of peripheral metabolism and myriad of factors which control the differentiation of the stem cells remain unclear. My research interests are mainly focused on how these neural components and niche factors exert influences on bone metabolism and stem cells in disease models. In previous studies we have found that stem cells could arrest the degeneration of cartilage through differentiation and stimulating endogenous cells; we also found that the small molecule (strontium) could directly enhance the osteodifferentiation of the stem cells and promote bone repair through activating Wnt pathway. We have used optogenetic technology to dissect the pivotal role of astrocytes in regulating the differentiation of the stem cells, and enhance the reparative effects of stem cells in stroke and Parkinson disease models. Currently we are using cutting-edge optogenetic technology to dissect the neural circuits which regulated the peripheral bone metabolism and differentiation of stem cells.